API vs GUI: What’s the Difference?

Oct 20, 2022 | Test Automation Insights, Uncategorized

Lots of acronyms are used in software development, and it can be easy to get confused when you’re starting out. APIs (Application Programming Interface) and GUIs (Graphic User Interface) are often misused as they have similar functions. However, they work in very different ways and are used for entirely distinct purposes.

What Is API Testing?

To understand what API testing is, it is important to cover what an API is. APIs act as a liaison between two software programs for the user’s convenience. For example, when you purchase an item from a website, it likely uses a payment processing API to help you pay for your purchases rather than its own integral payment processor.

API testing, then, seeks to validate that the API is functioning as expected. The goal of API testing is to ensure that the functionality, reliability, performance, and security of the software is all working as it should. These tests generally focus on the responsiveness of the API and do not tend to factor in the look and feel of an application.

Types of API Tests

  • Validation testing: Validation testing ensures that the transfer of encrypted data is done properly to prevent reconciliation issues or fraudulent situations. 
  • UI testing: UI testing addresses the user interface. This type of testing is meant to test the functionality of a software application as the user sees it. 
  • Security testing: Security API testing seeks to ensure that each of the endpoints of an API comply with best practices and are secure.
  • Load testing: Load testing is targeted at ensuring that an API can handle an unexpected load by simulating high traffic to address bottlenecks before they happen.
  • Error detection: Error detection testing makes sure that the API can identify errors when they occur, so they can be appropriately addressed and resolved. 
  • Penetration testing: Penetration testing simulates a breach to identify any possible vulnerabilities and patch them before the software is made public.
  • Fuzz testing: Fuzz testing is an automated test that injects invalid or unexpected inputs into a system and monitors for issues to address security or performance issues.

Benefits of Automated API Testing Tools

  • Maintenance: Automated API testing tools lessen the amount of time that you spend on maintenance by addressing possible issues before they come up. 
  • Scalability: With automated API testing tools, you can create testing modules for complicated environments or repeated tests without limitations.
  • Automation: Automated testing for APIs reduces the time spent on testing without impacting the quality of the tests or introducing the possibility of human error.
  • Coverage: Automated API testing can cover a much broader range of tests than manual testing in much a shorter timespan with significantly reduced complexity.
  • Speed: Automated API testing runs without you needing to monitor it, which means that you can run tests while focusing on other tasks and complete testing more quickly.

What Is GUI Testing?

A Graphic User Interface (GUI) is what your user sees when they use your software. GUIs typically have objects that your user can interact with, and these objects represent the backend data that the developer has created.

GUI testing focuses on the experience of the end user when using a software application. This type of testing seeks to address possible actions that a user will take. It differs from an API in that the interaction is not between two programs, but rather between the software and the human user.

Types of GUI Tests

  • Swing GUI testing: Swing GUI testing addresses Swing, a Java toolkit for GUIs. 
  • Component testing: Component testing tests the individual components of an application independently of one another. 
  • Functional testing: Functional testing seeks to ensure that the functionalities of the GUI meet the requirements set forth.
  • Non-functional testing: Non-functional testing is a broad term used to define tests performed to address non-functional aspects of a software such as performance, usability, flexibility, etc.
  • Structural testing: Structural testing is focused on testing out the structure of a code. This type of testing is typically done by the software developers as knowledge of the code is necessary.
  • Regression testing: Regression testing addresses changes made to a software to ensure that the GUI still runs as it should after the change has been made. This type of testing can also address new code added to existing code.
  • End-to-end testing: End-to-end testing addresses a software application’s function from beginning to end to ensure all elements are functional.

Benefits of Automated GUI Testing Tools

  • Multiple test levels: Regardless of whether you want to test one element or the entire application, you can create a testing module to perform that test and get accurate results.
  • Simplicity: With automated GUI testing tools like Ranorex Studio, you have the ability to create a testing module without the need for additional coding.
  • Perspective: Automated GUI testing also takes on the role of the end user, so you can get an accurate testing scenario.
  • Reliability: Manual testing allows for human error to take place, and things can be missed and left unaddressed before they arrive at a user. With automated testing, you remove that risk all together.
  • Continuous integration: As you shape your GUI and make changes, you can continue to run tests and be certain that any vulnerabilities will be found.

Compare API Testing vs. GUI Testing

Speed

API tests are typically faster. This is because GUIs tend to have more elements and, as such, testing is slowed by the number of objects and elements that it must focus on.

Subject

API testing centers on ensuring that the two programs that are speaking to each other are doing so properly. This means that many of these tests are going to be functional tests that deal with the code of the program. Meanwhile, GUI testing is going to focus on the user’s experience when viewing the GUI. That means that the tests are going to be less concerned with the functionality of the program and more concerned with the look and feel of it.

Breadth

Because APIs are not as comprehensive in scope as GUIs, testing for APIs is more narrowed on particular elements. WIth GUI testing, you generally deal with a broader scope of testing to address visual as well as functional elements.

Try GUI or API Testing Automation with Ranorex

To try out API or GUI testing for yourself, download a free trial of Ranorex Studio and develop your own testing modules for limitless testing with accurate results.

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